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魏晋的士与族

作者:admin 2020-09-03 我要评论

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如果要谈魏晋南北朝这样一段长达400年的分裂时期对整个中国历史的意义,它其实为隋唐帝国的形成奠定了基础。

复旦大学历史系教授仇鹿鸣

 

实习记者/岳颖  主笔/蒲实

魏晋南北朝仅仅是过渡时代吗?

三联生活周刊:阎步克教授在《波峰与波谷》这本书中将魏晋南北朝称为专制官僚政治的“波谷”,体制上的“变态”和“扭曲”。对于魏晋南北朝来讲,前有奠定中国两千多年封建体制的秦汉,后有盛世唐宋,它仅仅是一个过渡时代吗?这段时代在中国古代帝制政治史上有何独特性和重要意义?

仇鹿鸣:传统史学观点一般认为魏晋南北朝是一个比较黑暗的时期,当时国家分裂,战乱频繁,民不聊生。这种说法也没错。但在我看来,在中国历史上,统一作为一个主流是要经过魏晋南北朝才能成立的。魏晋南北朝分裂的时间非常长,整整有四个世纪。在这四个世纪当中,除了西晋有20余年的统一之外,基本都是分裂状态。

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《历代帝王图》(局部)(FOTOE供图)

 

三联生活周刊:您的意思是,魏晋南北朝长期分裂、各个少数民族政权共存的局面,为后来一统天下的唐帝国提供了一种弹性。

仇鹿鸣:确实提供了一种弹性。魏晋南北朝长期分裂的主要原因是胡汉之间的民族问题没有得到解决。一直到北魏六镇之乱,这个问题仍没有解决好。后来经过长期战争冲突和文化的交融,胡汉问题才在北朝末期得到基本解决。到了隋唐,这个问题已经不再是一个核心问题了。隋末,天下群雄相争。虽然有些人具有胡人血统,但大家不是民族之间的斗争,只是政权之间的斗争,没有人想要代表某一个民族集团压迫另一个民族——这种统治是不会稳定的。正因如此,唐统一全国后,政权可以很快地稳定下来。

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鲜卑族壁画,现藏山西省大同市云冈石窟博物馆(FOTOE供图)

 

士族政治的形成有何独特性?

三联生活周刊:东汉末年至魏晋之际,作为士族政治形成的初始阶段有何独特性?

仇鹿鸣:一般来说,东晋南朝是典型的士族时代,我们将其称为“门阀的时代”,或者说“五朝门第”。既然东晋南朝被认为是士族达到全盛的时代,那么在研究上就有一个溯其源流的任务。如何理解从东汉末年到西晋这段时期,政治和官僚阶层的构成和凝固这样一个历史的变化,是问题的核心。

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《金谷园图》,清华嵒绘。描绘西晋富豪石崇在金谷园中与歌妓吹笛寻欢的场面(FOTOE供图)

 

三联生活周刊:在西晋初年,这两个因素已经可以看得比较清楚:一个是累世为官的官僚阶层的形成,第二个是在这些官僚阶层中,存在着共同的对于清谈,以及后来玄学文化的认同。这些变化如何在西晋末年的战乱之后得以延续和加强?

仇鹿鸣:八王之乱后,五胡入华,整个中原处于战乱状态,东晋政权被迫南迁到建康(今南京),形成了东晋南朝的政治局面。其实一开始,司马氏并没有想到此后政权会一直退居南方。留守在南方、后来成为晋元帝的司马睿,在当时其实只是一个人望比较低的宗室亲王。真正有机会逃到南方的司马氏宗室甚至都不多。当时人称“五马渡江”,其实就是说五个宗室王逃到了南方,司马氏剩下的宗室基本都在北方的战乱中覆灭了。因此,皇权在这个过程中大大衰弱。

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三联生活周刊:您在您的书中提到,西晋灭亡的原因之一是官僚阶层的不流动。为什么源源不断地有寒族的力量被任用、参与到政治事务中,但是最后还是形成了一种封闭的官僚体系?

仇鹿鸣:西晋初年的官僚阶层大都经历了从东汉到曹魏这100多年的时间。这一批人其实已经通过世宦、婚姻等方式形成了一张庞大的网络。此时也有一些出身平凡但有才能的人崛起,但这些人主要是因个人功劳而进入到西晋政权当中的。这种个人力量与其他的家族,以及家族之间构成的网络相比,还是很微小。这些崛起的寒人多立下的是军功,文化水平较差,融不进当时的清谈圈子中去。邓艾就是一个很有意思的例子:他在军事上很有才能,地位很高,但他有点口吃,融不进当时的圈子。也有一些人成功地融入进去了,比如石苞就是寒士出身,由于军功显赫,受到司马氏的重用,地位很高。到了他的儿子石崇,已经可以对当时的文人阶层产生重要影响了。寒人与士族并非截然对立,存在着转化的情况。

三联生活周刊:在魏晋南北朝中,寒人扮演了一个怎样的角色?

仇鹿鸣:在整个魏晋南北朝,寒人扮演的是配角。在大部分士大夫、士族的眼中,寒人的形象是不怎么光彩的。当时有一个词经常和寒人连用在一起,叫做“躁进”,意思是非常积极进取,想要做官,是一种带有贬义的描述。这也说明了当时的官僚阶层非常封闭。在西晋初期,人们已经非常明显地感觉到,一个人如果社会身份比较卑微,哪怕他很有才华,也很难在政治上获得高位。这其中最有名的就是左思所说的“世胄蹑高位,英俊沉下僚”。这个现象在东汉末年还不明显,但到了西晋初年,态势已比较明显;到了东晋南朝,士族政治就稳定下来了。

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魏晋之“士”有何特点?

三联生活周刊:“士”与每一时代的政治、经济、社会、文化、思想各方面的变化都密相呼应。与唐宋乃至明清相比,魏晋之“士”有何特点?

仇鹿鸣:魏晋之外的其他时代,士更多是一个个体。宋代士大夫的代表范仲淹说,“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”,但是他只代表了他个人,不代表范氏家族。在历史上绝大部分时间,士是一个个体,强调的是因为有政治才能或德行而为官,或者被人尊敬的个人。

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三联生活周刊:这种转变是怎么发生的呢?

仇鹿鸣:这种转变在西晋时出现端倪,在东晋逐渐凝固。东汉末年时期的“清议”讲的就是品评人物,这时还是以人物为中心。魏晋被称为“人的觉醒”的时代,很多研究文学和哲学的学者对这个时代有很高的评价。出现了“竹林七贤”等一批非常有个性的人,这些人完全是因为他们特立独行的表现和才能而被人所看重。这个时候还是“竹林七贤”,而不是“竹林七族”,他们是作为个体而出现的。但几乎在同时,社会阶层也在凝固,官僚阶层累世为宦的现象越来越严重。西晋时还有一些出身不太高或者说家道中落的人为人所看重,但到了东晋,门第因素已经变得至关重要。我们谈王谢的时候,谈的其实不是王导和谢安两个人,而是两大家族。

三联生活周刊:魏晋之后,士从家族向个体的转化又是怎么发生的?

仇鹿鸣:一直到唐代,门第都非常重要。学界一般认为,从魏晋南北朝到唐代,都是士族时代,只不过魏晋南北朝时期皇权比较衰弱,士族的力量强一些,而到了唐代,士族开始走下坡路,在黄巢起义中基本全都覆灭。后来的宋代基本上是一个庶民时代,很多官僚都出身平平,是靠科举考试,而不是家族步入仕途的。这种变化也是唐宋变革中一个非常重要的面向。


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