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人物

叶嘉莹:吟咏人生

作者:admin 2020-09-20 我要评论

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镜头前,叶嘉莹告诉人们,她要将古诗词吟诵传下去,即使现在不被接受也没关系。就像远古神话中可以远隔重洋通话的蓝鲸,这点海上的遗音,也许将来会被人们听到并感动。

 

叶嘉莹

 

 

图片提供/《掬水月在手》摄制组

诗词中展开的生命

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冬季时的洛阳一角,山河依旧,让人怀想唐诗写作的时空与风物

 

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1948NIAN,DANGYEJIAYINGLIKAIBEIJINGDAOSHANGHAIJIEHUNSHI,SUISHENSUODAIXINGLIZHONGJIUYOULAOSHIDEJIBENKETANGBIJI。GUSUIDUIZHEIWEIDIZIPOWEISHANGXI,ZAI1948NIAN12YUE4RIDERIJIZHONG,HAIWEITACHUDAOTAIWANDEXINKUKAITAN:“DEYEJIAYINGJUNZITAIWANZUOYINGLAIXIN,BAOGAOJINKUANG,ZIYANKANHAIZI、SHAOFAN、DAZA,SHUBUGUAN,BUJINWEIZHIZAOWUJICAIZHITAN。”BUJIU,LIANGRENDUANLELIANXI,DENG1974NIANYEJIAYINGHUIDAODALUHOU,CAIDEZHILAOSHIYIYU1960NIANQUSHI。

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大雪覆盖下的洛阳龙门石窟观音像,这一佛教圣地曾不断出现在唐人的诗歌中

 

从“为己”到“为人”

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1979NIAN,DANGYEJIAYINGSHOUCIHUIGUOKAIBANSHIGEJIANGZUO,ZHEIZHONGWENHUACHUANCHENGDEXINGJUE,RANGTAYOULEGENGWEIPOQIEDEXINQINGHEGUANGKUODEWUTAI。ZAIHUIYILUZHONG,TASHUO:“YINWEICONG80NIANDAIZHONGQIYIHOU,WODUOCIHUIGUO。FAXIANGUONEINIANQINGRENDEGUDIANWENHUASHUIPINGYIJINGRIQUDILUO,XUDUORENZHIZHUZHONGWUYUZHUIQIU,SHEHUIFENGQIRIXIA。WOXIANGRUGUONENGZAIYOUERYUANZHONGKAISHE‘GUSHICHANGYOU’DEKECHENG,YICHANGGEHEYOUXIDEFANGSHI,JIAOERTONGCHANGSONGGUSHI,JIUKEYITONGGUOJIAOJITAMENXIAOHAIZISONGDUHEYINYONGGUSHIDEXUNLIAN,LAIPEIYANGHETIGAOWOMENXIAYIDAIHAIZIMENDEDAODEPINZHIYUWENHUACHENGDU。”

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“剩将余世付吟哦”

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YEJIAYINGWEIHEDUIGUSHICIDEYINSONGRUCINIANZIZAIZI,HUOZHESHUO,WOMENDAODIYINGGAIRUHELIJIEGUSHICIDEYINSONG?DUI“XINWENHUA”YUNDONGZHIHOUDEXUDUORENLAISHUO,GUSHICIDEYINSONGSIHUZAICHUCHANGBIANBEIDINGWEIWEIYUFUHUOGUOSHIDEDONGXI。LUXUNZAISANWEN《CONGBAICAOYUANDAOSANWEISHUWU》ZHONG,BIANSHENGDONGDIMIAOHUIGUODANGSHISISHUZHONGDEYINSONG:“HOULAI,WOMENDESHENGYINBIANDIXIAQULE,JINGXIAQULE,ZHIYOUTAHAIDASHENGLANGDUZHE:‘TIERUYI,ZHIHUITITANG,YIZUOJIEJINGNI;JINPOLUO,DIANDAOLINLIYI,QIANBEIWEIZUIHE……’WOYIXINZHEISHIJIHAODEWENZHANG,YINWEIDUDAOZHEILI,TAZONGSHIWEIXIAOQILAI,ERQIEJIANGTOUYANGQI,YAOZHE,XIANGHOUMIANAOGUOQU,AOGUOQU。”

RENMINWENXUECHUBANSHEBIANSHENSONGHONG,ZAIBEIDAZHONGWENXIBIYEDAORENWENSHEGONGZUOHOU,DIYICIZAILAOXIANSHENGNEILIZHIDAOLEYINSONGDIAO。“DANGSHIRENWENSHEGUDIANBUZHURENLINDONGHAIXIANSHENG,SHENGZHANGZAIMINNANXIAOSHANCUN,MINNANYUBENLAIJIUSHIZHONGGUYINDEHUOHUASHI,NEILIYINSONGFENGQIHENSHENG,TAXIAOSHIHOUJIUXUEHUILEYINSONG。YICILIAOQILAI,WOJIUQINGTAYINSONGYIGETINGTING,YITINGHENHAOTING。HOULAIWOJUEDEYINGGAIBAOLIUXIALAI,JIURANGTALUYIN。”YESHICONGNEISHIQI,SONGHONGKAISHIYOUYISHIDISOUJIZHENGLILAOXIANSHENGDEGUSHICIYINSONG。JIUJINGHEWEIYINSONG?“JIEHUYUGECHANGYULANGSONGZHIJIANDEYINSONG,SHICHUANTONGSHIGEYIZHONGFEICHANGTESHUDESONGDUXINGSHI。YINSONGDETEDIAN,YINSONGDIAOSHIMEIYOUPUZIDE,MUQIANZHIHUOZAINIANLINGZAI70SUIYISHANGDELAOYIDAIXUEZHEDEKOUZHONG,SHIJIDAIFAJUEHEBAOHUDEZHONGHUAMINZUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN。”

YEJIAYINGZAI1992NIANXIEZUODEZHANGWEN《TANGUDIANSHIGEZHONGXINGFAGANDONGZHITEZHIYUYINSONGZHICHUANTONG》ZHONG,SHENRULUNSHULEYINSONGYUGUDIANSHIGEMIBUKEFENDEGUANXI,YIJIJINTIANDERENMENWEIHERENGYAOJICHENGSHIGEDEYINSONGCHUANTONG:“WORENWEIZHONGGUOGUDIANSHIGEZHISHENGMING,YUANSHIBANSUIZHEYINSONGZHICHUANTONGERCHENGZHANGQILAIDE。GUDIANSHIGEZHONGDEXINGFAGANDONGZHITEZHI,YESHIYUYINSONGZHICHUANTONGMIQIEJIEHEZAIYIQIDE。ERQIEZHONGSHIYINSONGDEZHEIZHONGGULAODECHUANTONG,BINGFEIRUYIBANRENGUANNIANZHONGSUORENWEIDEBAOSHOUHELUOWU,ERQIEJISHIJIUJINRIXIFANGZUIXINDEWENXUELILUNLAIKAN,YERENGSHIYOUQIZHONGYAOXINGDE。”

YEJIAYINGJIEYONGXIFANGPIPINGSHUYUYANJIUZHONGGUOGUDIANSHIGESHI,FAXIANGENBENWUFAZHAODAODUIYING“XING”DESHUYU,SHOUCIQIFA,TAFAXIAN“XING”ZHEIZHONGYIZHIJIEGANFAWEIZHUDEXIEZUOFANGSHI,ZHENGSHIZHONGGUOGUDIANSHICIDETEZHISUOZAI。ERZHONGGUOSHIGEDEYINSONGCHUANTONGZAOZAI《SHIJING》DESHIDAIBIANXINGCHENGLE。ZAI《ZHOULI·CHUNGUAN·ZONGBO》XIAPIANBIANYOU“DASILE……YILEYUJIAOGUOZI,XING、DAO、FENG、SONG、YAN、YU”DEJISHU,YEJIAYINGFENXIRENWEI,QIZHONG“FENG”YU“SONG”DEXUNLIANZHENGSHIJIYAOGUOZIMENBASHIGEBEIDUXIALAI,ERQIEYAOXUEHUISHIGEDEYINSONGZHISHENGDIAO。JINGUANZHEIZHONGZAOQISHIJIAOZHONGDEYINSONGXUNLIAN,ZUICHUSHICHUYU“FUSHIYANZHI”DESHIYONGMUDE,DANZAIQITUOLIZHEIZHONGSHIYONGMUDEHOU,GENGJIAXIANSHICHUZHONGGUOGUDIANSHIGEZAIXINGSHIFANGMIANZHONGSHIDUNCUOYUNLVDETESE,YIJIZAIBENZHIFANGMIANSUOXINGCHENGDEZHONGSHIXINGFAGANDONGZHIZUOYONGDETESE。

ZUOWEIYIZHONGDUTIDANYINDEYUYANWENZI,ZHONGGUOGUDIANSHIGEJIEZOUGANDEXINGCHENG,ZHUYAOYILAIYUSHIJUZHONGCIZIDEZUHEZAIYINSONGSHISUOZAOCHENGDEYIZHONGDUNCUODELVDONG。ZHEIZHONGDUNCUO,JIANDANLAISHUO,JIUSHIJIEPAIYUPINGZE。ZHEIYESHIZAIKOUERXIANGCHUAN、XITONGFUZADEYINSONGZHONG,SUOZUIXUZHUYIDEDIFANG。

YINSONGSUOYIZHONGYAO,SHIYINWEIGUDAIDESHIRENBUJINBANSUIYINYONGZUOSHI,HAIBANSUIYINYONGLAIGAISHI。TANGSHIZHONGZHURU“YINANYIGEZI,NIANDUANSHUJINGXU”“TAOYEXINGLINGCUNDIWU,XINSHIGAIBAZIZHANGYIN”ZHEIYANGDEJUZIBUSHENGMEIJU。YEJIAYINGRENWEI,ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIYINSONGSHENGZHONG,SHIGETONGSHIGANFALEZUOZHEYUDUZHE。“JIUZUOZHEERYAN,NAISHICHANSHENGYUQIDUIZIRANJIEJIRENSHIJIEWANSHIWANWUDEYIZHONG‘QINGDONGYUZHONG’DEGUANHUAIZHIQING;ERJIUDUZHEERYAN,ZEZHENGSHITOUGUOSHIGEDEGANFA,YAOSHIZHEIZHONG‘QINGDONGYUZHONG’DEGUANHUAIZHIQING,DEDAOYIZHONGSHENGSHENGBUYIDEYANXU。”

YINSONGDEMEILIHAIZAIYU,TABUTONGYUYIBEIGUDINGPUQUDEGEQU,SHIDUSONGZHEYIZIJIDEGANSHOUDUISHIGEZUOCHUDEGEXINGQUANSHI,ZHEIZHENGSHIYEJIAYINGZAIYINGPIANZHONGSUOSHUO:“YINSONGZHUYAOSHINIZIJIDUIYUSHIGEDENEIHAN、TADEGANQING、TADEYIJINGYOUYIZHONGTIHUI,YOUYIZHONGGONGMING,JIAOSHIRENDESHENGMINGZAINISHENGYINLIMIANFUHUO。”

CHULENIANSONGHEYINSONG,CHENCHUANXINGZAIYINGPIANZHONGHAIYAOQINGRIBENPEIYINDASHIZUOTENGCONGMING,JIANGDUFUDE《QIUXINGBASHOU》YONGYALEHEXIANDAILEDEFANGSHIBIAOXIANCHULAI,TONGGUOYIGENVGAOYINHENANZHONGYINDEYINCHANG,SUZAOCHUYIGEDUTEDESHENGYINKONGJIAN。“JIANGZHEISANZHONGSHENGYINFANGSHIBICIJIAOZHIQILAI,YOUDIANXIANGZHIJINYIYANG,BICIJINMIJIAOCUO。”CHENCHUANXINGSHUO。

SUIRANYINSONGSHIGUDIANSHICIDESHENGMINGLISUOZAI,DANSHICHUANCHENGQILAIBINGFEIYISHI。SONGHONGGAOSUWO,TAYETINGGUOYEJIAYINGDEYINSONG,JUEDEYEXIANSHENGDEGUANHUADIAOYINSONG,BIANHUATAIDA,BUHAOXUE;CIWAI,TAZHUYIDAOYEXIANSHENGYOUSHIZAIYINSONGZHONGYEBUGUANPINGZEZHANGDUANDEGUILV。WEICI,TAJIANYIKEYIYONGPUTONGHUAYINSONGMINNANYUDEDIAOZI,JIZHANXIANPINGZEGELV,YEYIYUXUEXI。BUGUO,DUIYINSONGZHONGYOUSHIWEIFANPINGZHANGZEDUANDEQINGKUANG,YEJIAYINGZAIDOUBANKAISHEDEKECHENG《YILEYUJIAOGUOZI:GUSHICIYINSONGKE》ZHONG,ZHUANMENZUOGUOJIESHI:“HENDUOBUDONGDEYINSONGDEREN,YINWEIBUZHIDAOZENMEYINSONG,TAIZIYOULE,ZHAOBUDAOYIGEGUIJU。SUOYITAMENZIJIZHUOMOCHUYIGEGUIJU:FANSHIPINGSHENGJIUTUOZHANG,FANSHIZESHENGJIUSUODUAN。ZHEIJIUTAIJIANDANLE,BUSHIZHEIYANGJIANDANDE,YAOKANSHIGEDEQINGGANHENEIRONG,YOUSHIHOUZESHENGYEKEYITUOZHANG。HAIYOURUSHENGZI,YOUp、t、kDESHOUWEI,YUANZESHANGYAOMASHANGBASHENGYINTINGZHIFENGBI,BUNENGTUOZHANG,KESHIZAISHIGEYINSONGDEQUWEISHANG,FASHENGSUIRANSHIDUANCUDE,DANSHISHENGYIWAIYOUQIANG,SHENGKEYISUODUAN,QIANGHAISHIKEYITUOZHANG。SUOYISHIZAISHUOQILAI,YINSONGDEZHANGDUANMEIYOUYIGEJUEDUIDEYINLEGUIZEKEYIZUNXUN。WEIYIKEYIZUNXUNDEJIUSHIGELVBENSHENZIRANDEJIEZOU。”

YINGPIANZHONG,YEJIAYINGYINSONGLEZIJICHUANGZUODEYIQUECI《ZHEGUTIAN》:“GUANGLEJUNTIANSHIMOZHI,LINGLUNCHUIZHUZICHENGCHI。YINGZHONGBAIXUEWURENHE,YUWAILANJINGYOUMENGSI。MINGYUEXIA,YECHAOCHI,WEIBOTIAODISONGWEICI。YIYINCANGHAIRUNENGHUI,BIANSHIQIANQIUGONGCISHI。”TADEPENGYOUSHENBINGHEJIESHILEBEIHOULANJINGDEGUSHI,JUSHUOZAIYUANGUSHENHUAZHONG,LIANGTOULANJINGKEYIXIANGGEJIQIANGONGLI,TONGGUOHUSHENGTONGHUA。YEJIAYINGJIEZHEJIESHIDAO:“WOSHUO‘LAOQUYUNIANGENGJIDUO’,WOHAIBUZHIDAONENGHUOJINIAN,YEXUSHIDANXIZHIJIANDESHIQING。WOJIUJIAODAJIAYINSHI,WOJUEDEZHEIGEYAOBATACHUANXIAQU,SUOYI‘SHENGJIANGYUSHIFUYINE’。WOSHUO‘YAOTIANRUYOULANJINGZAI’,SHENXIANSHENGSHUODENEIGELANJINGKEYIGEYANGCHUANYU,WOLIUXIADEZHEIYIDIANHAISHANGDEYIYIN,YEXUJIANGLAIHUIYOUYIGERENHUITINGDAO,HUIGANDONG。XIANZAIDERENDOUBUJIESHOUYEMEIGUANXI。FANZHENGWOJIUSHILIUXIALAI,JIUZHEIYANG。”

(本文写作参考叶嘉莹口述、张候萍撰写《红蕖留梦——叶嘉莹谈诗忆往》、叶嘉莹著《多面折射的光影:叶嘉莹自选集》等书,感谢须文蔚、张鸣老师对采访的帮助)


1.BENZHANZUNXUNXINGYEGUIFAN,RENHEZHUANZAIDEGAOJIANDOUHUIMINGQUEBIAOZHUZUOZHEHELAIYUAN;2.BENZHANDEYUANCHUANGWENZHANG,QINGZHUANZAISHIWUBIZHUMINGWENZHANGZUOZHEHELAIYUAN,BUZUNZHONGYUANCHUANGDEXINGWEIWOMENJIANGZHUIJIUZEREN;3.ZUOZHETOUGAOKENENGHUIJINGWOMENBIANJIXIUGAIHUOBUCHONG。

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