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大法官金斯伯格:“钉子”的智慧

作者:admin 2020-10-17 我要评论

9YUE18RI,MEIGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANDAFAGUANLUSIBADEJINSIBOGE(Ruth Bader Ginsburg)SHISHI。ZAISHISHIQIAN6NIANLI,JINSIBOGEYIJILIEDEYIYIZHEXINGXIANGCHENGWEIWANGLUOHONGRENHEWENHUAOUXIANG。DANDUIJINTIAN...

9月18日,美国联邦最高法院大法官鲁斯·巴德·金斯伯格(Ruth Bader Ginsburg)逝世。在逝世前6年里,金斯伯格以激烈的异议者形象成为网络红人和文化偶像。但对今天的世界而言,她的遗产绝不只是持续的斗争精神。在一个充满分歧的社会中寻找共识,务实地推动社会变革和进步,是金斯伯格和她的时代留下的启示。

大法官金斯伯格

 

网络红人背后

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9月19日,位于华盛顿的联邦最高法院外,人们在纪念和哀悼金斯伯格

 

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2020年4月10日,金斯伯格主持的一场入籍仪式

 

审时度势

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2005年4月23日,参议员奥巴马和里德贝特见面。金斯伯格是《莉莉·里德贝特公平薪酬法》的重要推动者

 

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FULANGDILUOYIANDEFUBISHI10NIANQIAN,1963NIAN,BEIDI·FULIDANCHUBANLE《NVXINGDEAOMI》,FENGMIMEIGUO,XIANQILENVXINGJINRUZHICHANGDELANGCHAO。NVXINGBUZAIBEIPUBIANRENWEIZHINENGZUOJIATINGZHUFU。FULANGDILUODEKUNJINGZHISUOYICHANSHENG,QIAQIASHIYINWEI70NIANDAIMEIGUOKONGJUNZAIDALIZHAOMUNVXINGCANJUN,TAMENZAIXUANCHUANGUANGGAOLIXIEDAO:“SHEISHUONVRENJIUGAIBEIXIANZHIZAISANDIANYIXIANDESHENGHUOZHONG,NANDAOSHENWEINVXINGJIUBIEWUXUANZE?JIARUMEIGUOKONGJUN,NIYENENGTANSUOSHIJIE!”

DAFAGUANMENBUSHISHEHUIBIANGEDEJUEYUANTI。XIAOWEILIAN·YUESEFU·BULUNNAN(William Joseph Brennan,Jr.)DAFAGUANSHIJINSIBOGEDEZHICHIZHE,DANTABINGFEITIANRANDIJIESHOUNVXINGPINGQUANDEZHUZHANG。1970NIAN,BOKELIFAXUEYUANTUIJIANBANJICHENGJIPAIDIYIDEAILISEN·GELEI(Alison Grey)JITAZUONVSHUJIGUANSHI,TALIJIHUIJUEDAO:“JIWOLINGWAIZHAOYIGE。”KESHISANNIANHOU,TAJIESHOULETONGYANGYOUXIUDEMASHA·BEIERZONG(Marsha Berzon)。MASHA·BEIERZONGHAISHIGEMAMA,DANFUZHEZHAOGUHAIZIDEZHONGREN,MEITIANXIAWU5DIANJIUYAOLIKAIBANGONGSHIQUQUANTUOYOUERYUANJIEHAIZI。YOUYISIDESHI,BULUNNANDAFAGUANYEHETAYIYANGCONGCONGLIKAILEBANGONGSHI,YINWEITADENVERLIHUNLE,DAIZHEHAIZIHEBULUNNANZHUZAIYIQI。TAWAICHUGONGZUOSHI,JIESONGWAISUNNVSHANGXIAXUEDEZHONGRENJIULUOZAILEWAIGONGBULUNNANDESHENSHANG。

上世纪70年代“反平权法案运动” 的领导者菲丽丝 · 谢拉弗利就是一位女性。大法官们面对的问题往往极为复杂,没有明确的是非之分

 

LIUYISI·BAOWEIER(Lewis Powell)DAFAGUANCENGXIANGGONGZHONGCHENGREN,TARENWEIFUNVDADUOGENGQINGXIANGYUJIATING,KENEIZHIHOU,TAJIESHOULEYIWEILVSHIZUOZIJIDEERXI。HOULAI,AOKANGNABEITIMINGCHENGWEILIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANDEDIYIWEINVXINGDAFAGUAN。BAOWEIERDESHOUYAOZHIJUJIUSHIBAERXIJIESHAOJIAOKANGNA,ANPAITACANJIALEAOKANGNADEJIUZHIYISHI。BAOWEIERZAIYISHIHOUDEJIAXINZHONGHAIXINGZHIBOBODIXIEDAO:“JINGUANAOKANGNADAFAGUANYUSHANGBAIRENWOSHOU,DANTAHAIJIDEMIMUSI,BINGCHENGZANLETA。”

1993NIAN3YUE,JINSIBOGEZAINIUYUEDAXUEFABIAOLEBEICHENGWEI“MAIDIXUNYANJIANG”DEJIANGHUA。BANNIANHOUJIJIANGLVXINDEDAFAGUANQIANGDIAO,HANGAIFANWEIGUOGUANGDEFAYUANPANJUEZHIHUISHIDEQIFAN,BIXUXIANKAOMINJIANYUNDONGHELIFAJIGOUYINQISHEHUIBIANGE,RANHOUFAYUANCAINENGGAIBIANPANLI,FOUZEFAYUANGUOZAOCHASHOUGANYUZHIHUIQIDAOWANQUANXIANGFANDEXIAOGUO。TAZAIYANJIANGZHONGBIAODALEDUI“LUOYISUWEIDEAN”PANJUEDEBUMAN。

1969NIAN,YIWEIHUAMINGWEIJIENEI·LUOYIDEFUNVHEQITARENYIQIXIANGDEKESASIZHOUXIANZHIDUOTAIDEFALINGTICHULETIAOZHAN。GAIFALINGGUIDING,CHUFEIYINWEIWEIHUYUNFUDESHENGMING,ZHOUNEIYILVJINZHIFUNVSHISHIDUOTAISHOUSHU。1973NIAN,LIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANYI6∶3DETOUPIAOJIEGUOCAIDING,DEZHOUXIANZHIDUOTAIDEFALINGGUOYUKUANFANDIXIANZHILEYUNFUZAIRENSHENGUOCHENGZHONGDEXUANZEQUAN,QINFANLE《MEIGUOXIANFADISHISITIAOXIUZHENGAN》SUOBAOHUDEGERENZIYOU,GOUCHENGWEIXIAN。BIQIJINSIBOGEDANGNIANDESUSONG,LUOYIANYINQIDEHONGDONGYAODADEDUO。

BIAOMIANSHANGKAN,LUOYIANWEIHULENVXINGDEDUOTAIQUANLI,DANZAIJINSIBOGEKANLAI,TACUODELIPU,YINWEITA“TAIBAOSHOU”,YOU“TAIJIJIN”。TADEBAOSHOUZAIYU,DANGSHIDEPANJUEJIANLIZAIDUI“YINSIQUAN”DEWEIHUSHANG,BINGMEIYOUCONGNVXINGPINGQUANDEJIAODUQURENSHIZHEIGEWENTI。

TADEJIJINZAIYU,DUIDUOTAIQUANDEKAOLIANG,SHEJIDUIMUQINHETAIERLIANGZHESHENGMINGQUANDEQUANHENG,ZAIMEIGUODECHUANTONGZONGJIAODAODEBEIJINGXIASHIJIWEIMINGANDEWENTI。JINSIBOGERENWEI,SHEHUIYUANYUANWEIDAODUICIDACHENGGONGSHIDESHIKE。LUOYIANZAOCHENGDESHIJIXIAOGUOSHIFUMIANDE。ZAILIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANZUOCHUPANJUEHOU,BAOSHOUSHILIFAQILEFANJI。MEIGUOXUDUOZHOUTONGGUOLIFA,ZHIZAOLEDUOTAIDECENGCENGXIANZHITIAOJIAN。MISULIZHOUHENKUAIJIUTONGGUOLELUOYIANZHIHOUDESHOUBU《FANDUOTAIFA》,GAIFAYUNXUYISHENG、HUSHIHEYIYUANZAIDUOTAISHOUSHUWEIFANDAODE、LUNLIHUOZONGJIAOXINYANGSHIJUJUESHISHI。1974NIAN,MISULIZHOUTONGGUOLEYIXIANGFAAN,GAIFAANYAOQIUDUOTAISHOUSHUBIXUHUODEYUNFUBENRENDEZHIQINGTONGYI,RUGUOYIHUNHAIXUHUODEPEIOUDEZHIQINGTONGYI,YIJIRUGUOSHIWEIMAN18SUIDEWEIHUNWEICHENGNIANREN,XUHUODEQIFUMUDEZHIQINGTONGYI。

ZAIGUOQUJIN40NIANSHIJIANLI,ZHEIZHONGQINGXINGYIZHIYANXU。QUNIAN,MEIGUOYOU7GEZHOUTONGGUOFAANSUOXIAOLEYUNXUDUOTAIDEFANWEI。YALABAMAZHOUZHOUZHANGKAI·AIWEI(Kay Ivey)ZHENGSHIQIANSHUXINDUOTAIFAAN,GUIDINGZAIYALABAMAZHOU,DUIYUNQICHUZAIRENHEJIEDUANDEYUNFUSHISHIDUOTAIDOUZHENGSHIBEISHIWEIZHONGZUI,KEPANCHU10ZHI99NIANYOUQITUXING,JIBIANSHIQIANGJIAN、LUANLUNDAOZHIHUAIYUNDEQINGKUANGYEBULIWAI。BAOSHOUPAIBINGBUHAIPARENMENJIANGCIFAANSUZHILIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUAN,ZHEIYANGYILAI,TAMENZHENGHAOYOUJIHUIRANGDAFAGUANMENTUIFANLUOYIANDEPANJUE。

和而不同

BIER·KELINDUNHOULAIZAIZICHUAN《WODESHENGHUO》(My life)ZHONGHUIYITATIMINGJINSIBOGECHENGWEILIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANFAGUANDELIYOU:“JIANMIANZHIHOU,WORENWEITAJUBEICHENGWEIYIMINGWEIDAFAGUANDEQIANLI,QIMATAKEYIZUODAOXINDAFAGUANXUYAOZUODESANJIANSHIQING:GENJUDANGSHIRENDEGONGZUIERBUSHITAMENDEYISHIXINGTAIHUOSHENFENLAIDINGAN;KENENGDEHUA,YUBAOSHOUDEGONGHEDANGDAFAGUANHEZUOYIDACHENGYIZHIYIJIAN;BIYAODEHUA,ZEYONGGANDIYUTAMENKANGZHENG。”

CONGMOUZHONGYIYISHANGSHUO,JINSIBOGEDESHENSHENWUSHIYUDAOLEYIGEZHENGQUEDENIANDAI。NEIGESHIHOU,ZIYOUHEBAOSHOUHAIWEIYOUJINTIANZHEIYANGJILIEDEDUIKANGHEFENYE。1981NIAN,AOKANGNACHENGWEIZUIGAOFAYUANDIYIWEINVXINGDAFAGUAN。CIQIAN,TAZAIFALVJIEJIHUMOMOWUWEN。AOKANGNADEFEIYUEDEYIYULIGENZHENGFUBAITUOGONGHEDANG“XINGBIEQISHI”KUNJINGDEXUQIU。DUONIANLAI,AOKANGNAYIZHISHENCHUBAOSHOUZHENYING,DANZHEIBINGBUFANGAITAHEZIYOUPAIBIEDEJINSIBOGEXINGXINGXIANGXI。AOKANGNAGOUMAIBINGBAOCUNLE《DAXIYANGYUEKAN》1970NIANFAXINGDENVXINGTEKAN。TATEYIBA《NVXINGXIANGYAODESHISHENME》(What Women Want)ZHEIPIANWENZHANGDEYIYEZHELEQILAI,SHANGMIANJIZAIZHEMEIGUOMEIYIJIZHENGFUDUINVXINGQUBIEDUIDAIDEFALV。1992NIAN,BAOSHOUPAIXIANQIDESUSONGCHAYIDIANJIUTUIFANLELUOYIAN,SHIAOKANGNATOUCHULEGUANJIANDEYIPIAO。

1995NIAN,YIGEZAIMEIGUONVQUANYUNDONGLISHISHANGHUAXIANONGMOZHONGCAIYIBIDEANZILAIDAOLEZUIGAOFAYUAN:MEIGUOSUFUJINIYAAN(United States v.Virginia)。FUJINIYAZHOUYOUYIGEHEXIDIANJUNXIAOQIMINGDEFUJINIYAJUNSHIXUEYUAN,JIANXIAOYILAICONGBUZHAONVSHENG。LIANBANGSIFABUJIEDAOLEBEIJUJUEDENVXINGXUESHENGDETOUSUHOU,BAJUNXIAOGAOSHANGFATING。JUNXIAODETESHUXING,SHITABEISHIWEIBAOSHOUPAIZUIHOUDEBAOLEI。ZUIZHONGPANJUESHIJUNXIAOBAISU,TOUPIAOJIEGUO8∶1。1996NIAN6YUE,ZHANZAIXUANDUPANJUEWEIZHISHANGDESHIJINSIBOGE。TALAIDAOZUIGAOFAYUANCAISANNIAN,ZILISHANGQIAN。GENJUGUANLI,XUANDUPANJUEDEFAGUANRENXUANYOUTOUPIAOSHIDUOSHUYIFANGZHONGZILIZUILAODEDAFAGUANZHIDING。YUANBEN,HUODEZHEIGEGUANGRONGZHIDINGDERENSHIAOKANGNA,DANAOKANGNASHUO,ZHEIGEANZIDEPANJUEDANGRANYOUJINSIBOGELAIXIE。ERJINSIBOGEZAIXUANDUPANJUESHI,TEYITIDAOLEAOKANGNAZAI1982NIANXIEDEYIFENPANJUESHU,TASUOSHEJIDEHEGENSUMIXIXIBIANSHILISHISHANGDIYIGEJINZHINANNVFENXIAODEANZI。

ZAILIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUAN,JINSIBOGEZUIHAODEPENGYOUSHIANDONGNING·SIKALIYA(Antonin Scalia)DAFAGUAN。TAMENYIQITINGGEJU,YIQIGUOXINNIAN,JUBANLIANGGEJIATINGDEJUHUI,YIQIDAOGUOWAILVXING。ZAIYINDU,TAMENTONGCHENGYITOUDAXIANG。SIKALIYAZUOZAIQIANMIAN,TADIAOKANDAO:WOYIWEINVQUANZHUYIZHERENHESHIHOUDOUBUGANRENHOU。RENMENJINGTANYUZHEIDUANYOUYI。CONGFAXUELINIANSHANGKAN,JINSIBOGEHESIKALIYAJIHUSHISUDI。TAZHICHISIXING,TUIDONGZONGJIAOJINRUGONGGONGLINGYU,YANEZHONGZUPINGQUANCUOSHI,YOUQIFANDUIDUOTAIXINGWEI。JINSIBOGECENGZHEIYANGJIESHILIANGRENDEGUANXI:“YIGEHENHAODEREN,YEKENENGHUIYOUHENHUAIDEGUANDIAN。”

GENGZHONGYAODESHI,JINSIBOGEDEPANJUEJUNSHIJIYUTAJIANSHOUDESIFAYUANZEERFEIZHENGZHIPIANHAO。TACENGZAIYANJIANGZHONGSHUO:“NIMENRENWEIDUOTAIYESHIYIXIANGQUANLI?NEIMEIWENTI。XIANFASUIRANMEIYOUTANDAOZHEIGEWENTI,DANSHIZAIMINZHUSHEHUI,NIMENKEYILIFACHUANGZHIZHEIXIANGQUANLI。ZHEIKEYISHIYIXIANGFALVQUANLI,DANBUNENGQIANGXINGSHUOTASHIXIANFAQUANLI。XIANFAQUANLIBUNENGYOUFAYUANSHUOSHENMEJIUSHISHENME,SHENZHIRONGRENRENMENSHASIYIGETAIER。XIANFABUSHIRENRENBIANLAIBIANQUDE,TAYINGDANGZUZHIGAIBIAN,SHENZHIYANHUANGAIBIAN。”CONGMOUZHONGYIYISHANGSHUO,TAHEJINSIBOGESHIYIZHIDE。

2016NIAN2YUE,SIKALIYADAFAGUANZAIWAICHUDALIEDUJIASHIXINZANGBINGFAZUOQUSHI,JINSIBOGEWEITAXIEXIALEYIPIANGANRENDEDAOWEN。“DANGGEJU《SIKALIYA/JINSIBOGE》JIEJINWEISHENGSHI,NANGAOYIN(SIKALIYA)YUNVGAOYIN(JINSIBOGE)LAILEYIQUERZHONGCHANG:‘WOMENSHIBUTONGDE,WOMENSHIYIZHIDE。’BUTONG,ZAIYUWOMENDUIWENBENDEJIESHISHANG;YIZHI,ZAIYUWOMENDUIXIANFAYUWOMENSUOFUWUDEZHIDUDECHONGJINGZHONG。……WOMENMEIMEIYIJIANXIANGZUO,DANDANGWODAIBIAOFATINGZHUANXIEYIJIANERSHOUDAOYIFENSIKALIYADEYIYISHI,WOZUIHOUFABIAODEYIJIANMINGXIANSHENGYUWODECHUGAO。……NENGGOURENSHITAZHEIWEITONGSHIYUZHENZHONGDEPENGYOU,SHIWODEXINGYUN。”

2006NIAN1YUE,AOKANGNAWEIZHAOGUHUANBINGZHANGFULIKAILELIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUAN。“WOXIANGYONGGUDULAIXINGRONGZIJIZAISHENPANXISHANGDECHUJING。”JINSIBOGEZAIYINIANHOUDEYICIFANGTANZHONGSHUO。NEIYINIAN,TAXUANDULEYIPIANZHONGYAODEYIYIYIJIANSHU。

LILI·LIDEBEITE(Lily Ledbetter)KUAI40SUISHIZAIGUTEYILUNTAICHANGWEIYUALABAMAJIAZIDENGSHIDEGONGCHANGZHONGHUODELEYIFENGONGZUO,TAYIKAOZIJIDENULICHENGWEILEQUYUJINGLI,YUTATONGJIDEJIBENDOUSHINANXING。1998NIANTAKUAITUIXIUSHISHOUDAOLEYIZHANGZHITIAO,TACAIDEZHIZIJIYIZHIYILAIDEGONGZIDIYUTONGDENGZHIWEIDENANXING,TAMEIYUESHOURU3727MEIYUAN,ERTONGDENGZHIWEISHOURUZUIDIDENANXINGGONGZISHI4286MEIYUAN,ZUIGAODEYOU5236MEIYUAN。LIDEBEITEQISULEGUTEYIGONGSI,2006NIAN,ANJIANDADAOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUAN。

2007NIAN5YUE,DAFAGUANMENYI5∶4DETOUPIAOJIEGUOFOUJUELELIDEBEITEAN。FANDUIPIAODETOUCHUZHERENKEGUTEYILUNTAICHANGDEQUBIEDUIDAISHICUOWUDE,DANTAMENJIANCHI,YIJU1964NIANTONGGUODE《GONGMINQUANLIFAAN》DIQITIAO,DUIXINCHOUDESUOPEIXUYAOZAIQINHAIFASHENGZHIRIQI180RINEIQISU,LIDEBEITECHAOGUOLESUSONGSHIXIAO。

JINSIBOGESHIDANGSHIWEIYIDENVXINGDAFAGUAN。TAZAIYIYIYIJIANZHONGYIZHENJIANXUEDIZHICHU,BENYUANDUOSHUDAFAGUANMENBULIJIEHUOBUGUANXIN,NVXINGZAIZHICHANGZHONGKENENGSHOUDAODE,DANQUEXIANWEIRENZHIDEXINCHOUQISHI。“GONGZICHABIEJINGCHANGYIXIAOSHUELEIJIDEXINGSHIFASHENG,ZHENGRULIDEBEITEANJIANZHONGDEYIYANG,ZHEISHIDEDUIYUQISHICUNZAIDEFANYING,ZHIYOUJINGLIXIANGDANGZHANGDESHIJIANHOUCAIZHUJIANZENGZHANG,GENGHEKUANG,GUZHUWANGWANGXIANGGUYUANYINMANGUYUANXINCHOUYUTARENXINCHOUBIJIAODEXINXI。”

GUJUNFENZHANBINGBUNENGZUZHIJINSIBOGE,TAJIANGZHEIGEWENTICONGFAYUANTIDAOLEGUOHUI。TARENWEI,ZAIZUIGAOFAYUANDUIFATIAOJINXINGLEZHUOLIEJIESHIDEQINGKUANGXIA,YINGGAIYOUGUOHUIJIXULINGDAODOUZHENG。2009NIAN,AOBAMAZONGTONGQIANSHUTONGGUOLE《LILI·LIDEBEITEGONGPINGXINCHOUFA》。AOBAMABAGAIFAANDEFUZHIPINZHUANGBIAOQILAIDANGZUOLIWUSONGJILEJINSIBOGE,TAZAISHANGMIANXIEXIALEYIJUHUA:“GANXIENINWEICHUANGZAOYIGEGENGPINGDENG、GENGGONGPINGDESHEHUIERZUODEGONGZUO。”

ZAINEIYIHOU,SHEHUIJIHUA、DANGPAIZHENGZHIYUYANYULIE。TELANGPUJIUZHIMEIGUOZONGTONGYILAI,TAXINGYUNDIHUODELESANCIRENMINGDAFAGUANDEJIHUI。LIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANWEINENGZAIZHENGZHIHUAHEBAOSHOUHUADELANGCHAOZHONGXINGMIAN,CENGJINGDEHEERBUTONGBIANDERIJIANXIQUE。ZAIRENZHIDEZUIHOUJINIANLI,JINSIBOGEPINPINFABIAOYIYI。ZAI2012DAO2013NIANSHENPANNIANDUZHONG,TAXUANDULEWUPIANYIYIYIJIANSHU,ZHEIGESHUZIDAPOLEJINBANGESHIJIDEJILU。

ZHEISHIJINSIBOGEDUIKANGXINSHIDAIDEFANGSHI。RENMENZHUYIDAO,TAHECONGQIANYIYANGGUAYAN,TAMEIYOUSHEJIAOZHANGHAO,JIHUBUJIESHOURENHEMEITIDECAIFANG,DANSHITAZHUJIANGAIBIANLEYIYIYIJIANSHUDEFENGGE,KAISHIRANGTAMENBIANDETONGSUYIDONG,YIYUCHUANBO。TAYONGBAOLEWANGLUODUITADERECHEN:RUGUOBUNENGYINGXIANGCAIJUE,NEIJIUQUYINGXIANGDAZHONG。2016NIAN,JINSIBOGEDAFAGUANBENLAIJIHUAZAIXILALIZONGTONGJINGXUANSHENGXUANHOUTUIXIU,RUCIBIANKEYIYOUXILALITIMINGYIWEIZIYOUPAIFAGUANJIETIZIJI。XUANJUDEJIEGUODAPOLETADEXIWANG。YUSHI,TAXIANGDINGZIYIYANGJIANCHIZHE。JIUZAIQUSHIQIANJITIAN,JINSIBOGEXIANGSUNNVKELALA·SIPEILASHUO:“WOZUIREQIEDEYUANWANGSHI,ZAIXINZONGTONGJIURENQIAN,WOBUHUIBEIRENQUDAI。”


1.BENZHANZUNXUNXINGYEGUIFAN,RENHEZHUANZAIDEGAOJIANDOUHUIMINGQUEBIAOZHUZUOZHEHELAIYUAN;2.BENZHANDEYUANCHUANGWENZHANG,QINGZHUANZAISHIWUBIZHUMINGWENZHANGZUOZHEHELAIYUAN,BUZUNZHONGYUANCHUANGDEXINGWEIWOMENJIANGZHUIJIUZEREN;3.ZUOZHETOUGAOKENENGHUIJINGWOMENBIANJIXIUGAIHUOBUCHONG。

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